Besondere Kapitel der WI

Strategien für Innovationsmanagement

TIM = Technologie- und Innovationsmanagement

Weltweit werden Lehrstühle eröffnet

In Deutschland besonders an den techn. Universitäten (z.B. TU München, TU Berlin, RWTH Aachen), aber auch immer mehr an nich-techn. Universitäten (z.B. LMU München, WHU, EBS, Kiel)

Professionelle TIM Kommissionen innerhalb fachlicher Verbünde werden gegründet (z.B. AoM oder VHB)

Innovation?

“Innovation is one of those words that suddenly seem to be on everybody’s lips. Firms care about their ability to innovate, on which their future allegedly depends […] and hoards of consultants are busy persuading companies about the usefulness of their advice in this regard. Politicians care about innovation too, how to design policies that stimulate innovation
has become a hot topic at various levels of government.“ (Fagerberg and Verspagen 2009, p. 218)


“Innovation has become the industrial religion of the late 20th century. Business sees it as the key to increasing profits and market share. . . . Yet there is still much confusion over . . . how to make it happen.” (The Economist 1999)


“Innovation is essential to the improvement of public services; it is not an optional luxury but needs to be institutionalized as a deep value.“ (Albury 2005, p.51)

Schumpeter (1934 [1912] p. 66) definiert Innovation als…

  • the introduction of a new good or of a new quality of a good
  • the introduction of a new method of production
  • the opening of a new market
  • the conquest of a new source of supply of raw materials or half-manufactured goods
  • the carrying out of the new organization of any industry

Damanpour (1991)
“The generation, development, and adaptation of novel ideas or behaviour.
An innovation can be a new product or service, a new […] process […], a new structure or administrative system, or a new plan or program pertaining to organizational members.“

Amabile et al. (1996)
“We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the second.”


Oslo Manual (2005)
“An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisationa method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations.”

(1) Eine Aktivität
Generierung, Entwicklung, Nutzung…

(2) Ein Objekt
…eines Produkts, Service, Prozess, Struktur oder Business Models…

(3) Ein Element der Neuheit
…das signifikant verbessert, neu für die Organisation oder einen bestimmten Markt ist (vom lateinischen Wort “innovare” (erneuern) und dem lateinischen “novus” (neu))

Erfolg sollte nicht Teil der Defintion sein (pro-Innovation bias)

Innovation kann ein Prozess und dessen Output (z.B. Produkt, Service)
sein

Boston Consulting Group (2009)

Product/Service Innovations

Development of a new or significantly improved product or service
Embodied in an organization’s market offerings
E.g. iPad, Post-it Notes

Process Innovations

Development of a new or significantly
improved operational process

Seeks to improve the effectiveness and
efficiency of product or service delivery
E.g. iTunes, assembly line production,
e-tickets

Management Innovations

“Invention and implementation of a management practice, process,
structure, or technique that is new to the state of the art and is intended to further organizational goals.” (Birkinshaw, Hamel & Mol 2008, p.825)
E.g. SixSigma, TQM, BPR

Business Model Innovations

Development of a new or significantly improved way to create and capture
value in an industry
Involves a reconfiguration of such key elements as pricing, product or service delivery, ancillary services etc.
E.g. Dell, Amazon, Southwest Airlines

Radical Innovations

New to the world and fundamentally different from existing offerings
Often risky in terms of technology development, market acceptance and
demand
E.g. Transrapid, mobile phone

Incremental Innovations

Gradual changes or improvements to
existing offerings
Less risky as based on existing technologies and targeting existing
markets
E.g. ICE3, cordless land line phone

Architectural Innovation

Changes the configuration of a product or service and alters the way in which components interact

Components may remain unchanged
E.g. Desktop to laptop computer, thin clients, cloud computing

Component Innovation

Changes some of the components of a product or service system
Way in which components interact remains unchanged
E.g. Improvement of desktop computer, new locally hosted software

Rond and Bouchikhi 2004

Pro-Innovation Bias
Innovation often perceived as an end in itself, while stability is often equated with inflexibility

Benefits of Stability
Likelihood of firm survival increases with high reliability of performance and high levels of accountability
Importance of stable organizational structures and standardized routines


Side-Effects of Novelty
Novelty and change might disrupt existing routines and organizational structures
At least initially, the reliability of performance may decrease and organizational death rates
increase

Also see: Hannan and Freeman 1984

March 1991

Basiselemente

Innovation Focus (Where?)
Question: Where should we innovate?
Tools/Concepts: Technology push vs market pull, technology portfolios, positioning maps


Innovation Timing (When?)
Question: When should we innovate?
Tools/Concepts: First mover vs follower, technology and product life-cycles, dominant
design

Innovation Process (How?)
Question: How should we innovate?
Tools/Concepts: inward-looking, outward-looking, innovation platforms

WHERE

Market Pull

Technologische Opportunitäten entdecken: Disruptive Tech

WHEN

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